org.xml.sax
Interface ContentHandler

All Known Subinterfaces:
TemplatesHandler sample code for javax.xml.transform.sax.TemplatesHandler definition code for javax.xml.transform.sax.TemplatesHandler , TransformerHandler sample code for javax.xml.transform.sax.TransformerHandler definition code for javax.xml.transform.sax.TransformerHandler
All Known Implementing Classes:
DefaultHandler sample code for org.xml.sax.helpers.DefaultHandler definition code for org.xml.sax.helpers.DefaultHandler , DefaultHandler2 sample code for org.xml.sax.ext.DefaultHandler2 definition code for org.xml.sax.ext.DefaultHandler2 , ValidatorHandler sample code for javax.xml.validation.ValidatorHandler definition code for javax.xml.validation.ValidatorHandler , XMLFilterImpl sample code for org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl definition code for org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl , XMLReaderAdapter sample code for org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLReaderAdapter definition code for org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLReaderAdapter

public interface ContentHandler

Receive notification of the logical content of a document.

This module, both source code and documentation, is in the Public Domain, and comes with NO WARRANTY. See http://www.saxproject.org for further information.

This is the main interface that most SAX applications implement: if the application needs to be informed of basic parsing events, it implements this interface and registers an instance with the SAX parser using the setContentHandler sample code for org.xml.sax.XMLReader.setContentHandler(org.xml.sax.ContentHandler) definition code for org.xml.sax.XMLReader.setContentHandler(org.xml.sax.ContentHandler) method. The parser uses the instance to report basic document-related events like the start and end of elements and character data.

The order of events in this interface is very important, and mirrors the order of information in the document itself. For example, all of an element's content (character data, processing instructions, and/or subelements) will appear, in order, between the startElement event and the corresponding endElement event.

This interface is similar to the now-deprecated SAX 1.0 DocumentHandler interface, but it adds support for Namespaces and for reporting skipped entities (in non-validating XML processors).

Implementors should note that there is also a ContentHandler class in the java.net package; that means that it's probably a bad idea to do

import java.net.*;
 import org.xml.sax.*;
 

In fact, "import ...*" is usually a sign of sloppy programming anyway, so the user should consider this a feature rather than a bug.

Since:
SAX 2.0
See Also:
XMLReader sample code for org.xml.sax.XMLReader definition code for org.xml.sax.XMLReader , DTDHandler sample code for org.xml.sax.DTDHandler definition code for org.xml.sax.DTDHandler , ErrorHandler sample code for org.xml.sax.ErrorHandler definition code for org.xml.sax.ErrorHandler

Method Summary
 void characters sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.characters(char[], int, int) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.characters(char[], int, int) (char[] ch, int start, int length)
          Receive notification of character data.
 void endDocument sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endDocument() definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endDocument() ()
          Receive notification of the end of a document.
 void endElement sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String) (String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  uri, String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  localName, String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  qName)
          Receive notification of the end of an element.
 void endPrefixMapping sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endPrefixMapping(java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endPrefixMapping(java.lang.String) (String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  prefix)
          End the scope of a prefix-URI mapping.
 void ignorableWhitespace sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.ignorableWhitespace(char[], int, int) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.ignorableWhitespace(char[], int, int) (char[] ch, int start, int length)
          Receive notification of ignorable whitespace in element content.
 void processingInstruction sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.processingInstruction(java.lang.String, java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.processingInstruction(java.lang.String, java.lang.String) (String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  target, String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  data)
          Receive notification of a processing instruction.
 void setDocumentLocator sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.setDocumentLocator(org.xml.sax.Locator) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.setDocumentLocator(org.xml.sax.Locator) (Locator sample code for org.xml.sax.Locator definition code for org.xml.sax.Locator  locator)
          Receive an object for locating the origin of SAX document events.
 void skippedEntity sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.skippedEntity(java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.skippedEntity(java.lang.String) (String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  name)
          Receive notification of a skipped entity.
 void startDocument sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startDocument() definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startDocument() ()
          Receive notification of the beginning of a document.
 void startElement sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String, org.xml.sax.Attributes) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String, org.xml.sax.Attributes) (String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  uri, String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  localName, String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  qName, Attributes sample code for org.xml.sax.Attributes definition code for org.xml.sax.Attributes  atts)
          Receive notification of the beginning of an element.
 void startPrefixMapping sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startPrefixMapping(java.lang.String, java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startPrefixMapping(java.lang.String, java.lang.String) (String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  prefix, String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  uri)
          Begin the scope of a prefix-URI Namespace mapping.
 

Method Detail

setDocumentLocator sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.setDocumentLocator(org.xml.sax.Locator) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.setDocumentLocator(org.xml.sax.Locator)

void setDocumentLocator(Locator sample code for org.xml.sax.Locator definition code for org.xml.sax.Locator  locator)
Receive an object for locating the origin of SAX document events.

SAX parsers are strongly encouraged (though not absolutely required) to supply a locator: if it does so, it must supply the locator to the application by invoking this method before invoking any of the other methods in the ContentHandler interface.

The locator allows the application to determine the end position of any document-related event, even if the parser is not reporting an error. Typically, the application will use this information for reporting its own errors (such as character content that does not match an application's business rules). The information returned by the locator is probably not sufficient for use with a search engine.

Note that the locator will return correct information only during the invocation SAX event callbacks after startDocument sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startDocument() definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startDocument() returns and before endDocument sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endDocument() definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endDocument() is called. The application should not attempt to use it at any other time.

Parameters:
locator - an object that can return the location of any SAX document event
See Also:
Locator sample code for org.xml.sax.Locator definition code for org.xml.sax.Locator

startDocument sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startDocument() definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startDocument()

void startDocument()
                   throws SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException 
Receive notification of the beginning of a document.

The SAX parser will invoke this method only once, before any other event callbacks (except for setDocumentLocator sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.setDocumentLocator(org.xml.sax.Locator) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.setDocumentLocator(org.xml.sax.Locator) ).

Throws:
SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException - any SAX exception, possibly wrapping another exception
See Also:
endDocument() sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endDocument() definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endDocument()

endDocument sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endDocument() definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endDocument()

void endDocument()
                 throws SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException 
Receive notification of the end of a document.

There is an apparent contradiction between the documentation for this method and the documentation for ErrorHandler.fatalError(org.xml.sax.SAXParseException) sample code for org.xml.sax.ErrorHandler.fatalError(org.xml.sax.SAXParseException) definition code for org.xml.sax.ErrorHandler.fatalError(org.xml.sax.SAXParseException) . Until this ambiguity is resolved in a future major release, clients should make no assumptions about whether endDocument() will or will not be invoked when the parser has reported a fatalError() or thrown an exception.

The SAX parser will invoke this method only once, and it will be the last method invoked during the parse. The parser shall not invoke this method until it has either abandoned parsing (because of an unrecoverable error) or reached the end of input.

Throws:
SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException - any SAX exception, possibly wrapping another exception
See Also:
startDocument() sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startDocument() definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startDocument()

startPrefixMapping sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startPrefixMapping(java.lang.String, java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startPrefixMapping(java.lang.String, java.lang.String)

void startPrefixMapping(String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  prefix,
                        String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  uri)
                        throws SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException 
Begin the scope of a prefix-URI Namespace mapping.

The information from this event is not necessary for normal Namespace processing: the SAX XML reader will automatically replace prefixes for element and attribute names when the http://xml.org/sax/features/namespaces feature is true (the default).

There are cases, however, when applications need to use prefixes in character data or in attribute values, where they cannot safely be expanded automatically; the start/endPrefixMapping event supplies the information to the application to expand prefixes in those contexts itself, if necessary.

Note that start/endPrefixMapping events are not guaranteed to be properly nested relative to each other: all startPrefixMapping events will occur immediately before the corresponding startElement sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String, org.xml.sax.Attributes) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String, org.xml.sax.Attributes) event, and all endPrefixMapping sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endPrefixMapping(java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endPrefixMapping(java.lang.String) events will occur immediately after the corresponding endElement sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String) event, but their order is not otherwise guaranteed.

There should never be start/endPrefixMapping events for the "xml" prefix, since it is predeclared and immutable.

Parameters:
prefix - the Namespace prefix being declared. An empty string is used for the default element namespace, which has no prefix.
uri - the Namespace URI the prefix is mapped to
Throws:
SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException - the client may throw an exception during processing
See Also:
endPrefixMapping(java.lang.String) sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endPrefixMapping(java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endPrefixMapping(java.lang.String) , startElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String, org.xml.sax.Attributes) sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String, org.xml.sax.Attributes) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String, org.xml.sax.Attributes)

endPrefixMapping sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endPrefixMapping(java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endPrefixMapping(java.lang.String)

void endPrefixMapping(String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  prefix)
                      throws SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException 
End the scope of a prefix-URI mapping.

See startPrefixMapping sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startPrefixMapping(java.lang.String, java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startPrefixMapping(java.lang.String, java.lang.String) for details. These events will always occur immediately after the corresponding endElement sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String) event, but the order of endPrefixMapping sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endPrefixMapping(java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endPrefixMapping(java.lang.String) events is not otherwise guaranteed.

Parameters:
prefix - the prefix that was being mapped. This is the empty string when a default mapping scope ends.
Throws:
SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException - the client may throw an exception during processing
See Also:
startPrefixMapping(java.lang.String, java.lang.String) sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startPrefixMapping(java.lang.String, java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startPrefixMapping(java.lang.String, java.lang.String) , endElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String) sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String)

startElement sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String, org.xml.sax.Attributes) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String, org.xml.sax.Attributes)

void startElement(String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  uri,
                  String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  localName,
                  String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  qName,
                  Attributes sample code for org.xml.sax.Attributes definition code for org.xml.sax.Attributes  atts)
                  throws SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException 
Receive notification of the beginning of an element.

The Parser will invoke this method at the beginning of every element in the XML document; there will be a corresponding endElement sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String) event for every startElement event (even when the element is empty). All of the element's content will be reported, in order, before the corresponding endElement event.

This event allows up to three name components for each element:

  1. the Namespace URI;
  2. the local name; and
  3. the qualified (prefixed) name.

Any or all of these may be provided, depending on the values of the http://xml.org/sax/features/namespaces and the http://xml.org/sax/features/namespace-prefixes properties:

Note that the attribute list provided will contain only attributes with explicit values (specified or defaulted): #IMPLIED attributes will be omitted. The attribute list will contain attributes used for Namespace declarations (xmlns* attributes) only if the http://xml.org/sax/features/namespace-prefixes property is true (it is false by default, and support for a true value is optional).

Like characters() sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.characters(char[], int, int) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.characters(char[], int, int) , attribute values may have characters that need more than one char value.

Parameters:
uri - the Namespace URI, or the empty string if the element has no Namespace URI or if Namespace processing is not being performed
localName - the local name (without prefix), or the empty string if Namespace processing is not being performed
qName - the qualified name (with prefix), or the empty string if qualified names are not available
atts - the attributes attached to the element. If there are no attributes, it shall be an empty Attributes object. The value of this object after startElement returns is undefined
Throws:
SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException - any SAX exception, possibly wrapping another exception
See Also:
endElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String) sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String) , Attributes sample code for org.xml.sax.Attributes definition code for org.xml.sax.Attributes , AttributesImpl sample code for org.xml.sax.helpers.AttributesImpl definition code for org.xml.sax.helpers.AttributesImpl

endElement sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.endElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String)

void endElement(String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  uri,
                String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  localName,
                String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  qName)
                throws SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException 
Receive notification of the end of an element.

The SAX parser will invoke this method at the end of every element in the XML document; there will be a corresponding startElement sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String, org.xml.sax.Attributes) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.startElement(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, java.lang.String, org.xml.sax.Attributes) event for every endElement event (even when the element is empty).

For information on the names, see startElement.

Parameters:
uri - the Namespace URI, or the empty string if the element has no Namespace URI or if Namespace processing is not being performed
localName - the local name (without prefix), or the empty string if Namespace processing is not being performed
qName - the qualified XML name (with prefix), or the empty string if qualified names are not available
Throws:
SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException - any SAX exception, possibly wrapping another exception

characters sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.characters(char[], int, int) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.characters(char[], int, int)

void characters(char[] ch,
                int start,
                int length)
                throws SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException 
Receive notification of character data.

The Parser will call this method to report each chunk of character data. SAX parsers may return all contiguous character data in a single chunk, or they may split it into several chunks; however, all of the characters in any single event must come from the same external entity so that the Locator provides useful information.

The application must not attempt to read from the array outside of the specified range.

Individual characters may consist of more than one Java char value. There are two important cases where this happens, because characters can't be represented in just sixteen bits. In one case, characters are represented in a Surrogate Pair, using two special Unicode values. Such characters are in the so-called "Astral Planes", with a code point above U+FFFF. A second case involves composite characters, such as a base character combining with one or more accent characters.

Your code should not assume that algorithms using char-at-a-time idioms will be working in character units; in some cases they will split characters. This is relevant wherever XML permits arbitrary characters, such as attribute values, processing instruction data, and comments as well as in data reported from this method. It's also generally relevant whenever Java code manipulates internationalized text; the issue isn't unique to XML.

Note that some parsers will report whitespace in element content using the ignorableWhitespace sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.ignorableWhitespace(char[], int, int) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.ignorableWhitespace(char[], int, int) method rather than this one (validating parsers must do so).

Parameters:
ch - the characters from the XML document
start - the start position in the array
length - the number of characters to read from the array
Throws:
SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException - any SAX exception, possibly wrapping another exception
See Also:
ignorableWhitespace(char[], int, int) sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.ignorableWhitespace(char[], int, int) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.ignorableWhitespace(char[], int, int) , Locator sample code for org.xml.sax.Locator definition code for org.xml.sax.Locator

ignorableWhitespace sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.ignorableWhitespace(char[], int, int) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.ignorableWhitespace(char[], int, int)

void ignorableWhitespace(char[] ch,
                         int start,
                         int length)
                         throws SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException 
Receive notification of ignorable whitespace in element content.

Validating Parsers must use this method to report each chunk of whitespace in element content (see the W3C XML 1.0 recommendation, section 2.10): non-validating parsers may also use this method if they are capable of parsing and using content models.

SAX parsers may return all contiguous whitespace in a single chunk, or they may split it into several chunks; however, all of the characters in any single event must come from the same external entity, so that the Locator provides useful information.

The application must not attempt to read from the array outside of the specified range.

Parameters:
ch - the characters from the XML document
start - the start position in the array
length - the number of characters to read from the array
Throws:
SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException - any SAX exception, possibly wrapping another exception
See Also:
characters(char[], int, int) sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.characters(char[], int, int) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.characters(char[], int, int)

processingInstruction sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.processingInstruction(java.lang.String, java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.processingInstruction(java.lang.String, java.lang.String)

void processingInstruction(String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  target,
                           String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  data)
                           throws SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException 
Receive notification of a processing instruction.

The Parser will invoke this method once for each processing instruction found: note that processing instructions may occur before or after the main document element.

A SAX parser must never report an XML declaration (XML 1.0, section 2.8) or a text declaration (XML 1.0, section 4.3.1) using this method.

Like characters() sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.characters(char[], int, int) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.characters(char[], int, int) , processing instruction data may have characters that need more than one char value.

Parameters:
target - the processing instruction target
data - the processing instruction data, or null if none was supplied. The data does not include any whitespace separating it from the target
Throws:
SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException - any SAX exception, possibly wrapping another exception

skippedEntity sample code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.skippedEntity(java.lang.String) definition code for org.xml.sax.ContentHandler.skippedEntity(java.lang.String)

void skippedEntity(String sample code for java.lang.String definition code for java.lang.String  name)
                   throws SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException 
Receive notification of a skipped entity. This is not called for entity references within markup constructs such as element start tags or markup declarations. (The XML recommendation requires reporting skipped external entities. SAX also reports internal entity expansion/non-expansion, except within markup constructs.)

The Parser will invoke this method each time the entity is skipped. Non-validating processors may skip entities if they have not seen the declarations (because, for example, the entity was declared in an external DTD subset). All processors may skip external entities, depending on the values of the http://xml.org/sax/features/external-general-entities and the http://xml.org/sax/features/external-parameter-entities properties.

Parameters:
name - the name of the skipped entity. If it is a parameter entity, the name will begin with '%', and if it is the external DTD subset, it will be the string "[dtd]"
Throws:
SAXException sample code for org.xml.sax.SAXException definition code for org.xml.sax.SAXException - any SAX exception, possibly wrapping another exception